GEOLOGIC HAZARDS

The key business of our company is the development of solutions for the integrated protection of the territory, buildings and structures from dangerous slope processes with high destructive power and extreme impact effects. Such dangerous phenomena of nature as landslides, rockfalls, debris flows and snow avalanches are a direct threat to people's lives, so any work at all stages of the project should be trusted by professionals and not rely on the “Russian avos”.

 

Traditionally, massive reinforced concrete structures are used to protect against dangerous slope processes: avalanche and rockfall galleries, dams, retaining walls and etc. However, the use of such structures is not always justified from a technical and economic point of view, and sometimes it is simply impossible. In any case, the construction of such facilities in a mountainous area is an expensive, resource-intensive and extremely lengthy process.

A brilliant alternative to traditional solutions - are high-strength flexible deformable metal structures, capable to absorb powerful shock effects directly on the slope. The basic element of all the designs produced by our company is the high tensile strength ring nets and 2D-Geo chain-link meshes. The optimal ratio of flexibility and strength of our structures allows them to be used on difficult slopes with limited space. Low weight and ease of installation will save the budget at the stage of construction and installation works. The accumulated experience allow us to consult on the project in a short time and without loss of quality. We will offer a cost-effective design that meets all the requirements of the investor, customer and designer.

Rockfall is a form of mass movement or mass wasting in which pieces of rock travel downward through some combination of falling, bouncing, and rolling after they are initially separated from the slope. The sizes of rockfall blocks can range from cubic centimeters to tens of thousand of cubic meters. Although some sliding may occur as the rock is becoming detached, sliding is a minor component of the process. Free fall typically occurs on slopes steeper than 76 degrees, bouncing on slopes between 45 and 76 degrees, and rolling on slopes below 45 degrees. 

 

ROCKFALL

LANDSLIDE

A landslide is defined as the movement of a mass of rock, debris, or earth down a slope. Landslides are a type of "mass wasting," which denotes any down-slope movement of soil and rock under the direct influence of gravity. The term "landslide" encompasses five modes of slope movement: falls, topples, slides, spreads, and flows. These are further subdivided by the type of geologic material (bedrock, debris, or earth). Debris flows (commonly referred to as mudflows or mudslides) and rock falls are examples of common landslide types.

Almost every landslide has multiple causes. Slope movement occurs when forces acting down-slope (mainly due to gravity) exceed the strength of the earth materials that compose the slope. Causes include factors that increase the effects of down-slope forces and factors that contribute to low or reduced strength. Landslides can be initiated in slopes already on the verge of movement by rainfall, snowmelt, changes in water level, stream erosion, changes in ground water, earthquakes, volcanic activity, disturbance by human activities, or any combination of these factors. Earthquake shaking and other factors can also induce landslides underwater. These landslides are called submarine landslides. Submarine landslides sometimes cause tsunamis that damage coastal areas. 

 

DEBRIS FLOW

A DEBRIS FLOW is a moving mass of loose mud, sand, soil, rock, water and air that travels down a slope under the influence of gravity. To be considered a debris flow, the moving material must be loose and capable of “flow”, and more than half of the solids in the mass must be larger than sand grains, including gravel, pebble, cobble and boulder sized material. The speed of a debris flow can reach of 100 miles per hour, although most commonly they are slow and move only a few feet per year downslope.

 

SNOW AVALANCHE

 

An avalanche is a rapid flow of snow down a hill or mountainside. Although avalanches can occur on any slope given the right conditions, certain times of the year and certain locations are naturally more dangerous than others. Wintertime, particularly from December to April, is when most avalanches tend to happen. However, avalanche fatalities have been recorded for every month of the year.

An avalanche has three main parts. The starting zone is the most volatile area of a slope, where unstable snow can fracture from the surrounding snow cover and begin to slide. Typical starting zones are higher up on slopes. However, given the right conditions, snow can fracture at any point on the slope.

 

The three parts of an avalanche path are the starting zone, avalanche track, and runout zone. The avalanche track is the path or channel that an avalanche follows as it goes downhill. Large vertical swaths of trees missing from a slope or chute-like clearings are often signs that large avalanches run frequently there, creating their own tracks. There may also be a large pile-up of snow and debris at the bottom of the slope, indicating that avalanches have run.  The runout zone is where the snow and debris finally come to a stop. Similarly, this is also the location of the deposition zone, where the snow and debris pile the highest. Several factors may affect the likelihood of an avalanche, including weather, temperature, slope steepness, slope orientation (whether the slope is facing north or south), wind direction, terrain, vegetation, and general snowpack conditions. Different combinations of these factors can create low, moderate, or extreme avalanche conditions. Some of these conditions, such as temperature and snowpack, can change on a daily or hourly basis.